Using space as a learning tool

What are school libraries used for? I think it’s safe to say that most teachers take their students to the library for physical resources like using laptops, computers, books for research or books for reading. I use to do that too. But lately I have found that I take my students to the library not for these physical resources, but for space, learning spaces that are open and flexible. The colourful, funky, movable furniture also helps, but me and my students mainly use it for the space. We bring our own laptops if we need technology. When I think about it, it’d probably be almost as sufficient if the library was a large, indoor carpeted area. With WiFi of course 🙂

Ever since I started project-based learning four years ago, it has driven more personalised, differentiated learning where students are working at different paces and at different tasks. During the one lesson, some students are working in pairs, others in small groups, and some individually. As the teacher, I might be working with an individual student, instructing a small group or instructing the whole class. What I am finding is that traditional classrooms are no longer sufficient for the pedagogy I have developed and grown into over the past four years with project-based learning. I am finding that being in a traditional classroom, that is designed to cater for 30 students, is now starting to restrict the learning of my students. We need an open space where students can find an area that suits their learning needs for the activity.

7A in library (2)

My class working in the school library in order to access an open learning space.

In the past two terms, I have been taking my students to the library for this specific purpose – space. The past fortnight has seen my students work in teams to design, conduct and report on an investigation to test factors that affect a parachute’s descent. For this project, students have to work in groups in some parts and individually in other parts. Students always end up progressing at different rates. This is where an open learning spaces is needed to enable this kind of learning to occur efficiently. However, teaching and learning in a open space has its challenges. The main ones I found are:


  • Students need to be taught and given the experience to learn how to work in an open space where there are other classes and school staff working as well.
  • Students need to be taught how to create their own little learning space in the open learning space. This includes knowing how arrange the funky, colourful furniture for the needs of the learning activity. This is why I no longer have seating plans for my classes. Students need to be given the opportunity to choose who they work with and where to sit or stand to work productively. If teachers always do this for them with seating plans, etc, students will never develop that ability.
  • Students need to be provided with the experience to develop self-regulation. The success of working in an open learning space is highly dependent on students to work individually, small groups and large groups simultaneously.

Eventually I’d like to be in a situation where there is team teaching of larger groups of students in large, open spaces. Where teaching and learning isn’t restricted an industrial model of one teacher per 30 students in a small classroom with a seating plan.

How do you use your learning spaces?


Flipped learning isn’t about making videos


I’ve been getting a lot of questions about how I go about flipped learning for my Year 7 class since I blogged about it in a previous post. I teach my Year 7 class for English, Maths, Science, Geography and History and we use flipped learning in maths. Here are some misconceptions about flipped learning I’d like to address:

1. Flipped learning isn’t about making videos.

Flipped learning involves students watching instructional videos, but it doesn’t necessarily mean that the teacher has to make those videos. Many teachers don’t want to try flipped learning because they are concerned about the time it takes to create instructional videos. This is a valid concern as creating instructional videos do take up time. Personally I have created some maths instructional videos using OfficeMix but only when I don’t find suitable instructional videos that are already freely available online. There are so, so many instructional videos on the internet that it isn’t necessary for each individual teacher to create videos and re-invent the wheel. Some of my favourite sites for maths instructional videos are ABC Splash and BBC Bitesize.

Flipped learning is not about creating videos, but rather a change in pedagogy. Instead of the teacher spending class time on whole-class instruction, whole-class instruction is done via instructional videos with students viewing those videos individually in class or at home. This enables more class time to be dedicated to student collaboration and students gaining guidance from the teacher. It enables more personalised learning as it doesn’t force all students to listen to the same instructions regardless of whether they understand it or not, like traditional instruction. It also allows students to work at their own pace. If they have been absent from school, it’s OK. They haven’t missed out on the instruction because they can watch the video. Personally I find that it works the best in maths lessons because my Year 7 class has students who are working at a Year 9 level and students who are working at a Year 5 level. Flipped learning enables me as their teacher to better personalise and differentiate their learning. The photo below shows the set-up of one flipped maths lesson where I worked with a small group of students near the whiteboard while the rest of the class used instructional videos to move on to the next concept. Flipped learning frees students from doing the same thing at the same pace.

flipped learning classroom setup

Classroom set up for one maths lesson where one group of students (near the whiteboard) needed small-group instruction and guidance from me as their teacher while the rest of the class moved onto the next concept.

So don’t let the video creation scare you off from flipped learning. Use videos that are already out there.

2. You don’t have to do flip all the time.

Just like all other teaching strategies, flipped learning isn’t the most appropriate all of the time. For me, my class has 3 hours of maths a week (a two-hour block on Wednesday and a one-hour block on Friday). I use flipped learning in the two-hour lesson and use the one-hour lesson to do formative assessment activities.

3. There’s no one-size-fits-all.

I think the “proper” flipped learning approach is for students to watch the instructional videos at home. For my students, that wouldn’t work for a range of reasons so they watch the videos in class.  Do what works for you and your students.

The key is to try it. Don’t let the video creation aspect scare you. Use videos that are already out there. Flip for a few lessons to start with and see how it goes.

How to teach the reasons for the seasons


Diagram showing the Earth revolving around the Sun. Image is public domain.

Why does the Earth have seasons? This, along with other phenomena associated with Earth’s movement in space, is regularly taught throughout primary school and high school. In New South Wales, Australia, students learn the seasons from Year 3/4 through to Year 7/8.  By the time students reach high school (Year 7/8), they know that it is the Earth’s tilt and its revolution around the Sun are associated with the seasons. However, many students don’t know why or they hold the misconception that the Earth’s tilt causes the Southern Hemisphere to be a little bit closer to the Sun during some times of the year and this little bit of extra closeness to the Sun causes it to be warmer, so hence summer, and vice versa for winter. In reality, the Earth being tilted while it is revolving around the Sun results in variations of solar intensity due to varying angles of incidence. This is a very difficult concept for students to grasp. I have found the following collection of activities useful in guiding Year 7/8 students to understand the real reasons for the seasons.

Identify the misconceptions

Ask students to explain why the Earth has seasons. The majority of students will be able to say something about the Earth’s tilt and its revolution around the Sun. Many will stop there. Some will go on with the misconception about the slight changes in the distance between the hemispheres and the Sun causing the seasons.

Investigation – Angle of insolation and heat distribution

Students to work in groups in an investigation like this one to explore how the angle of insolation affects heat distribution, which in turn results in variations of temperatures and daylight hours as the Earth revolves around the Sun. I find that many students experience difficulty with this activity. Not only is the concept of seasons caused by angle of insolation challenging enough, but the activity itself is challenging as it uses challenging numeracy concepts.


I find this video from Crash Course kids effective in reinforcing the concepts discovered in the investigation.

How do you teach reasons for the seasons? Do you also find that students in Year 7/8 have difficulty understanding it conceptually? What hands-on activities do you do with your students?

How can we make Mars the perfect planet for the perfect society?

How can we make Mars the perfect planet for the perfect society?

This is the project my Year 7s will work on in Term 2. The project will be a cross-curricular project involving English, Science, Geography and History. In English, students will be reading the novel, The Giver, to explore a “perfect” society. In Science, they will be learning about space and space travel. In Geography, they will be learning about what makes a society (laws, types of government, etc) and in History, they will be learning about Ancient Rome as a society. Students will produce a range of learning artefacts for this project, including building their own “perfect” society in Minecraft.

Here’s their project outline. Keep in mind I had to frame this project with restrictions of existing assessments in place for all the subjects.

How can we make Mars the perfect planet for a perfect society-

I have also made a project progress wall in my classroom. Previously, I have found it challenging to keep track of the stages students are up to for their projects. Having the project wall will enable students to see the major milestones of the project and allow me and the whole class to visually see where everyone is up to.

This project will be launched to the class next week. Watch this space for updates 🙂

Project evaluation – What to do again? What to change next time?

My Year 7 class has just finished one of their projects. It’s semi project based learning. I usually do a quasi PBL at the start of the year to assess my students’ existing abilities to work independently and collaboratively on projects. Here’s an outline of the project.

language project

Now that this project has finished. I’d like to reflect on what worked and what can be changed next time.

What worked and should be done again

  • The theme and content of water ties Geography and Science together very well. For this project we focused on the water cycle (for both Science and Geography), the social impacts of water (Geography) and separation techniques to obtain clean water (Science).
  • Using Science and Geography as the content for English. The end project of the speech is originally an English assessment for Year 7s (whether they did PBL or not). Using the water concepts from Science and Geography as the content for the speech was a very efficient way of using time.
  • Using Google Docs as cycles of feedback. The students used Google Docs for the different formative assessment components. Using the Editing mode and Comments in Google Docs enabled an efficient way for feedback to be provided and acted on.
  • Using Google Forms for students to give feedback on each others’ final speeches.


What needs to be changed next time

  • The Driving Question. I was not a huge fan of this Driving Question. Next time I will have students create a persuasive product that convinced young people to donate to a charity that addressed water issues. I don’t know what the driving question will be for that but I think the end product is more meaningful that the current speech to their peers.
  • Sharing the end product to a wider audience. For this project this time around, we didn’t upload the videos of the students’ speeches online as many of the students did not feel confident enough to so. I originally had the idea of TED talk style speeches given by students. However, their speeches given in front of the class was still top quality. Just because it isn’t on YouTube, it doesn’t mean the end product isn’t worthy.
  • Feedback on giving speeches. For this project, we spent a lot of time on the language of persuasiveness. The speeches went through 3 cycles of feedback for each student. While we did look at some speech samples, we didn’t go through nearly enough feedback cycles for the actual act of speech giving. This is what I have to work on next time. I’m thinking of using a video annotation tool for students to annotate evidence of effective speech presentation for next time.


Flipped learning – the ups and downs

This year I’m trialling flipped learning for my Year 7 class. I have one Year 7 class who I teach for 5 subjects – English, Maths, Science, Geography and History. For maths, I’ve decided to try flipped learning in order to be more efficient at differentiated learning.

So what made me feel the need to try flipped learning? In the first couple of weeks when I had maths lessons with my class, I’d find myself spending 20-30 minutes explaining the concept and doing worked examples as whole class instruction. I found that the whole class instruction treated every student as the same; that every student knew nothing about the concepts I was explaining. However the reality was that some students already knew how to do the maths I was explaining. Some students didn’t but picked it up quickly. Some students needed the explanations to be repeated. Other students needed individual instruction. I asked myself, ‘How can I better differentiate my maths lessons so that students are able to move at their own pace and allow me to provide individualised instruction more easily?’ The answer was flipped learning with OfficeMix.

Here’s an example of one of my OfficeMix maths videos:

I’m not doing the traditional flipped learning where students watch explanation videos at home and then do the exercises in class. I’ve modified it so that students watch the explanation videos in class. I find this version of modified flipped learning work for my students.

So here’s the ups and downs I have found so far with flipped learning:


  • OfficeMix is a really easy tool for making instruction/explanation videos. Because it is part of PowerPoint, it is extremely accessible to teachers (all teachers are familiar with PowerPoint). OfficeMix also have analytics where you can see how many times students have viewed a video and how long they spent watching certain sections. I have not used this feature yet.
  • Flipped learning allows my students to move at their own pace. Those who pick up concepts very quickly can move on quickly. Those that need more time can rewind and watch certain parts again. This then enables me to go around to each student and help them as individuals.
  • The videos allow students (and their families) to review the explanations at a later date, which is great for revision.

Downs (I prefer to label them as “areas to work on”)

  • Flipped learning is an acquired skill and needs to be taught. Flipped learning requires students to be independent learners, to know themselves whether they understand a concept or require further help. As a teacher, I need to teach this to my students.
  • Making the videos do take time. I have 4 hours of maths a week and I find that 1 to 2 videos per week is the most effective. We don’t have new videos in every lesson.
  • The need to copy information – I found that with the videos, some students did not take the time to process the information. They just watched it. In my latest videos, I have included instructions for students to copy the worked examples in the video as I believe the act of writing out the working out process will allow students to take the time to process the information.

So far, I think this version of flipped learning is working for my students. I am planning to evaluate this strategy with student surveys and focus groups in a few week’s time.



Student technology help desk for BYOD

student technology help desk poster

I’ve been leading my school in implementing BYOD for students for a few years now and one of the things we have noticed in our ongoing evaluation is students need technical support (eg. help in connecting their devices to the school wifi) and learning advice (eg. which apps to use for notetaking and for particular ways of presenting information for assignments) when they are bringing their own devices for schools. While many teachers believe that students are digital natives, we have noticed that many students are not as naturally competent and confident in using technology for learning as we think they are. Many students know how to use devices for social purposes but when it comes to enhancing their learning with their own devices, they need teachers to guide them. However, a major challenge is that teachers are also on the same learning journey as students. With BYOD, a teacher faces a large array of types of devices so it is a huge challenge to provide technical support or to be an expert in the thousands of apps that are available for students to use.

To meet this challenge, I’m currently experimenting with the Student Technology Help Desk. This is a service where students drop into a classroom at a certain time each week and get technical support or learning advice for BYOD from me and student digital leaders (who are trained to be tech-savvy). It is sort of like a Genius Bar. At the moment the Student Technology Help Desk is opened for 30 minutes a week and it every session has been non-stop from beginning to end. Staffing the help desk is me and three other students. There is a roster of which students staff the help desk so that each student gives up their time a maximum of twice a term. So far most help requests are for connecting devices to the school wifi, setting up Google Apps on devices and advice on apps to complete class tasks and assessments. So far it is working well and I think it’s a great way for help students bring their own devices to school and also a great learning opportunity for the student digital leaders.

Do you have BYOD at your school? Why not set up a Student Technology Help Desk as well?

Are teachers stretched to the limit?

Note: I love my school and all staff and students who work at my school. This post isn’t about how my school works. It’s about teaching in general.

I read a post tititled, How far can you stretch a piece of elastic before it snaps, this week and it really resonated with me. The post highlighted how the increasing workload demands on teachers are affecting their wellbeing. When I first started my current position, an older, more experienced teacher told me to watch myself because schools are blood suckers. They will keep drawing your blood unless you set the limits. It doesn’t matter how much blood you give, they will find a way to draw more until you are sucked dry.

This is a rather gruesome analogy that I don’t believe in 100%. I do believe that my school and the people who work in it all respect each other’s wellbeing and look after each other. But the post with the elastic band strategy and the blood sucking analogy highlights something that is rarely spoken about in schools – the effects of workload on teacher health and wellbeing.

One of the reasons I think many teachers feel they are stretched to the limit is the sheer amount of work involved in teaching. The following is a list of some thing steachers do:

  • Plan lessons & create resources
  • Marking and providing feedback to students
  • Work with colleagues to plan cross curricular lessons like project based learning
  • Teach classes
  • Admin and paper work – registers, recording student achievement data, entering professional learning hours onto a database, etc
  • Organising and running excursions, incursions and other extra-curricular activities like training sporting teams
  • Meetings – faculty meetings, staff meetings, committee meetings, parent meetings (there are many more types)
  • Observing other teachers’ lessons & providing feedback to them
  • Following up on student learning issues with a range of people including parents, counsellors, other teachers, etc
  • Follow up on emails – many, many emails
  • Create and monitor budgets for the area you are responsible for – faculty, sport, special programs

This is not an exhaustive list. I have probably forgotten to list a dozen more things teachers do on a regular basis. My question is can these things be done within work hours? I’m not talking about a 9-3 school day. I’m talking about a 8-5 work day that most other people in society work. My feeling is teachers cannot do what they need to do in a 9 hour working day and this is 9 hours straight. Many teachers do not eat, drink or even go to the bathroom at work because that is just not enough time.

My next question is is this what we expect teachers to do. Is teaching a job where to do everything you need to do, you have to put in 9 hours straight with no breaks at school, then work another 3 hours at home and then work 8 hours over the weekend?

People who know me may say that this post is just me adjusting to working full time after the birth of my baby. It isn’t. I have felt like this for a long time.  Many other teachers with or without kids feel this way. Many don’t want to say anything because sharing these thoughts may result in getting labeled as unproductive, ineffective, or uncommitted to your students. The last one is the worst assumption.

Are you a teacher? Do you think a teacher’s work can be done in work hours with minimal impact on personal wellbeing? Are teachers stretched to the limit?

Managing impacts of staffing on your workload

As any leader of a curriculum area would know, when teachers you supervise call in sick, it can be an absolute nightmare on your workload. It can also cause a lot of stress during the day, particularly when multiple teachers take sick leave at the same time, which often happens during winter. I had such a day today when I had two teachers call in sick, both with a large number of lessons on their timetables. It took me over an hour to plan their lessons , organise all the printing and rolls for their relieving teachers. This meant starting the work at home at 6am. It is not a teacher’s fault when they call in sick. When you are sick, you are sick and there’s nothing you can do, but the impact on other teachers can be significant. I’ve spoken to some curriculum leaders for advice on how to better manage this impact on my workload as I don’t want it to impact my time with my baby. Before baby, I can go to school at 7am when multiple teachers call in sick. But now I can’t as my baby needs to be dropped off at daycare first and I don’t want to because I don’t want to sacrifice time I spend with baby in the morning. She shouldn’t miss out on time with her parent because others has called in sick. So here are some strategie I’ve been told:

(1) Unless a teacher is so sick they are in an emergency ward, they have to set their own relief work

I know this is a strategy in some schools but I don’t like it for several reasons. It encourages sick teachers to come to school because coming to school when you are too sick is easier than setting the relief work. This facilitates the spread of the illness and the next thing you know, more teachers are sick. I also think when you are sick, you should be resting and recovering, not setting relief work.

(2) A buddy system

Some have suggested that each teacher should be buddies with another teacher so that when one teacher is sick, the buddy has to set the relief work. I haven’t tried this but I think it’s a bit of a cop out from the curriculum leader. It’s almost like palming off your role to your staff. I personally will not implement this system by choice.

(3) Programming with relief work already in place

This is the strategy I like so far and would like to put in place from next term. Programs for units of work have one-off, relief teacher friendly work for each lesson. Teachers have to complete their registers day by day and leave them on their desks so that anyone can see where they are up to at any time. This strategy takes a lot of work to set up but will minimise stress and workload increase.
So how do you deal with the workload that comes with teachers taking sick leave?

How schools and teachers can use Periscope


Periscope is a recently-released app from Twitter that allows you to live broadcast. What’s different about it in comparison to other digital tools for live broadcasting is that it lets you have a conversation with others viewing the live broadcast via ‘tweets’ (I don’t know the official name but when you watch a live broadcast on Periscope, you can type text in the ‘say something’ box and the text appears over the broadcast).

I’m currently playing around with Periscope for personal and professional use. Periscope has so many opportunities for schools. Here are some ideas:

Live broadcast major school events

Schools can live broadcast events like awards and carnivals. Parents, families and the community can watch these events live wherever they are.

Professional learning

This is where I think it’s the most exciting potential for Periscope for education. Learning from observing other teachers is one of the most valuable professional learning for teachers. However, a lot of the times it is restricted to observing colleagues at your own school. With Periscope, lessons can be live broadcasted. Multiple teachers can observe live online and ‘chat’ about the lesson via the text conversation feature of the app. The teacher being observed can then watch the saved video of this with the text conversation as feedback. This can also be used for pre-service teachers at university. They can watch a number of lessons back-to-back and have online conversations that is overlayed on the video.

There’s so much potential for Periscope in education. I can’t wait to see how teachers and schools use it. How are you and your school using Periscope?

Note: If you’re a teacher, please consult your Principal or education authority before using Periscope